There are a few different methods for laying out the joinery in a timber frame — scribe rule, square rule, mill rule etc
This post will take a deeper look at some Square Rule based framing.
Back in the fall of 2009 we worked on a frame which will be the workshop of an NBSS student using the Square Rule method. The project was carried out at Brookwood Farm in Canton MA which provided a great backdrop for our work along with the location of a later Scribe Rule project — restoring the old English style 2 bay barn that was discovered on the property.
Rather than custom scribing each joint in the frame — which is labor and time intensive, square rule framing allows you to effectively make some parts of the frame interchangeable (Think Model T Assembly Line) — so braces, joists are all cut to the same size to start. This method of framing came from the USA and was in part an answer to the need to speed up production as America rapidly expanded westward. Effectively you are using a square to find/define the virtual ‘perfect’ smaller timber inside the potentially rough stick you are working on — thus where the joinery is cut you are cutting back the side opposite your reference faces to square up that smaller perfect timber. This way you have nice clean and consistent mating surfaces. In the joint below you can see this on the top of the timber where it goes from clean cut joint to the rougher edge as the timber came from the mill.
This system allowed craftsmen (and women) to cut joints on the ground or in separate locations and then put them together for the first time at the time of raising. For those new to the trade that can seem daunting — but with practice and the old adage of ‘Measure Twice, Cut Once’ its not as scary as it might seem.
Below is a slideshow outlining the process of building a timber framed workshop/barn
Timber frame repairs at the historic Anna Clapp-Harris house in Dorchester MA.
Repairing a rotted modern sill can be challenging work. Repairing a timber framed sill can be even tougher if the foundation you are sitting on needs to be re-chinked into place as well. This house had some interesting things going on — beyond some questionable handywork by previous owners or tenants as you’ll see in the slides below. As each layer of the building is peeled back you can get a much better feel for its earlier glory days. By repairing the sills and other structural issues first we set the house on solid footing for upcoming repairs and restoration work.
Look for an upcoming post showing the restoration of the front windows which really give the front facade a new lease on life.
Captions in the slide show give additional information. 29 slides in this post, so be warned it might take a moment to load.
Back in the spring of 2010 I had the opportunity to design and build a very traditional stick framed shed. This project served as a great lesson on modern stick frame/platform framing construction techniques. In addition to top quality materials the project also had an emphasis on how traditional designs can be executed in a modern context while also maintaining high levels of craftsmanship.
The slideshow below documents the 2010 restoration of historic window sash for the 1713 Old State House in Boston MA. This historic building was the seat of colonial government in the Massachusetts Colony, site of the infamous Boston Massacre and where the Declaration of Independence was read to the citizens of Boston.
It’s easy to take windows for granted — we see them every day — they are all around us. But with the constant bombardment of advertising for ‘new’ vinyl windows, the latest insulated glass etc and an over-hyped fear of lead paint and asbestos many of our nation’s historic windows are being discarded without a second thought. We’re robbing future generations of the same views we had — seeing sites through the same wavy old glass our forefathers looked through. The way light shines through a true divided light window and the ease of use and maintenance some old windows can offer.
Ease of use and maintenance?! What old windows are you talking about?
Believe it or not properly built old single and double hung windows can be quite weather tight and easy to use when properly installed and maintained. These old windows were designed so that you could take them apart — held together with joinery and pins — and replace or repair broken glass or rotted wood. This is a lot more ‘green’ that today’s ‘modern’ modern vinyl windows. If something breaks on a vinyl window often the only repair solution is to swap it out for a new unit — think of all that waste. And lead and asbestos can all be safely removed or mitigated by preservation specialty contractors under the guidance of EPA regulations.
Below is a brief slideshow roughly documenting how a quality sash restoration can be carried out. I really enjoyed working on this project and I hope that you will consider saving/restoring your own historic windows.
It’s not every day I need to taper a table leg, but when I do, I want the operation to go off smoothly. For years I’ve used an extruded aluminum model which got the job done for modest size pieces but it had a lot of limitations especially if you value the quality of your work and your fingers.
This week I’m working on a shaker style console table for an upcoming show and I figured this was as good a time as any to build a better tapering jig. Thumbing through an old FWW compilation of shop improvement projects I found a jig I liked and I built my own.
The result is a much larger unit that is far more secure in holding the piece while tapering with better results given the miter slot runner and zero clearance edge to align your piece with. In an upcoming post you’ll see the results of this jig in action.
UPDATE: Added some pics to the slideshow showing the jig in action and the results it produces — nice clean and consistent tapers.
After years of half measures and fancy miter gauges (Delta, Woodstock, Rockler and Osborne) I finally built a proper crosscut sled. My only regret is that I didn’t build one sooner. 🙂
My design is a hybrid of many designs and features I’ve seen or liked over the years — from NBSS, Wood Magazine, FWW etc.
Highlights of this design:
Zero clearance fence
T Track for stops and jigs
Lexan safety screen
Heavy duty fences
Here is the process I followed:
Find material for the base. I used 1/2″ MDF since it’s cheap, stable and I had it on my scrap pile. I built this entire project using materials and supplies I had on hand which dictated some of the dimensions. 1/2″ Cabinet Grade plywood would also work well. I’ve found MDF to be more desirable for this sort of jig since its cheaper, IMHO slides better and less prone to warping. My base is 24″ x 34″
Rip 2 runners to fit tightly in your miter slots. I recommend UHMH (Ultra High Molecular Weight) Plastic since it’s stable and slides well. Take your time here and make sure this is NO play or slop in the fit. The runners should be a few inches longer than your sled is so you can use them to help get the jig onto the table saw when using it on large pieces.
Set the runners into the miter slots. Place you MDF base on top of the table and center it on the runners and try to get is square to the blade. (no need to fuss too much, but you can use the fence to get into the ballpark) Clamp it in place and using a large square draw out lines for the screw placement. Also space your screws evenly across the length of the sled and make sure the heads are countersunk below the surface of the base. NOTE: Make sure you properly size your screws so they do no go all the way through your plastic runner and scratch your table top
Mill some 8/4 hardwood — I used hard maple to form the fences. To many this may seem like overkill, but remember that you will be sawing through about half of your fence, so you need to make sure the ‘meat’ of whats left on top of the fence is strong enough to keep the sled in one piece even with the maximum kerf is in place. I also used a 1/4″ radius roundover bit to ease the edges of the fences and used a 5/16″ straight bit and router fence to plunge the holes in place for the adjustable zero clearance fence.
Put your base + runners assembly back on the saw. With the runners secure, plunge up through the middle of your sled base and make a kerf about a foot long. NOTE: When plunging up like this make sure you hands, tools etc are well clear of where the blade is going to surface.
Place the front fence (The one you will handle by hand when using the sled) on your sled assembly. Screw on the fence from below and countersunk like the runners. Only secure one side at this time as it will be a pivot for you in the next step.
Place your framing square against the kerf you made and use it to square up the fence to the kerf. When you feel you have it square, carefully pull the sled back so you can clamp down the right size of the fence and drive a screw in to secure it. Raise the blade again and make some test cuts. If your cuts are not dead on square, re-adjust the fence and retry until you get it right. This is the critical use for the fence, so this is the one area you want to make sure you fuss over and get it right.
Once you have the sled cutting square outline the fence in pencil (so you know if it ever gets bumped out of square if its dropped etc) and then use several more screws so secure the fence to the sled base.
Repeat the above process for the far fence. If you don’t plan on using the sled at maximum capacity you don’t have to fuss as much with this end.
Cut a 4″ wide piece of 1/4″ or thicker Lexan and install it over the top of the fence in line with the saw kerf. This serves to protect the operator and also provides some more support to the fences hopefully decreasing the likelihood of the base getting warped in the middle. Sand/round over the edges of the Lexan and use fender washers to spread out the pressure from the screws used to secure the Lexan.
Cut 4″ wide strips of 1/2″ MDF to form the Zero Clearance fence. (Works much like the fences on some router stations — like Norm’s New Yankee Workshop Deluxe Router Station). You can hold them up to the kerf on your sled and use the sled’s other side to mark the ends and then use the sled itself to make the cross cuts. Then hold them in place and put a pencil through the routed holes in the fence to mark where the jig hardware can move. Drill holes near the far end of the slot marks — so when you tear up the zero clearance inserts by use you can true up the ends and just close the gap for many years before you need to re-make this consumable piece. Also make sure to countersink the face sides of the holes in the MDF so the jig hardware does not interfere with stock pressing against the fence when the sled is in use. I rounded over the lower edge of these pieces with a 1/8″ radius round over bit to better accommodate dust that might otherwise get between the piece and the fence. (NOTE only round over that bottom edge and not the vertical edge you are using for the zero clearance backer)
Install the jig hardware and secure the zero clearance fence.
Cut some T-Track to width and install that immediately above the zero clearance fences. By making the MDF fence 4″ tall there is no way the 10″ blade on my table saw could possibly hit this T track. After years of quick clamping stop blocks in place I love finally being able to use a track and variosu kinds of jigs/stops to speed up production work.
I recently had the opportunity to take one of the ‘Taste of Blacksmithing’ classes at the Prospect Hill Forge in Waltham MA as part of the NBSS group event there. It’s something I wanted to take for a long time and I am happy I finally got to take it. During the class we learned some basic techniques and principles of how to work metal, then Carl and Mike let us try it for ourselves. The project for the class was a drive hook — which is a hook you would drive into a timber framed post or similar and then use like any other hook. (see below)
I’m looking forward to talking more classes there in the future.
You can find out more about the Prospect Hill Forge here. Carl and Mike were great instructors, and like me worked in Software/High Tech. 🙂
This weekend I finally finished my new Kiln — a Kiln that would make Binford and Tim Allen happy. My wife is ready to kill me as its one more huge thing to move up to NH soon, but I want to get back into making some more Windsor chairs once we get settled in our new house this spring. I took a workshop last summer at NBSS and made a continuous arm Windsor chair and hope to make some more for our new place.
The design is based largely on one my friend Pete Galbert came up with and shared on his blog here with a few minor changes/tweaks based on the engineer in me and what materials I had on hand. I’m looking forward to it having a long service life.
2′ x 3′ x 4′
Room for sizable pieces
Next up chair making project will be a shave horse.
A while back I completed a headboard and night stand for a friend of mine from NBSS — Erin who is a very talented jeweler. She made my dovetailed wedding band which I love. (You can check out some of Erin’s other work here http://erindeluca.com/ Tell her Bill sent you 🙂 )
I designed and built the project from reclaimed old growth eastern white pine which was previously a barn in CT. Reclaiming the wood and keeping the well earned patina of time took a lot longer than I originally anticipated, but I am very happy with the results.
Tips on reclaiming old wood:
Select wood with interesting character and tight/straight grain
Use a metal detector to search for nails or other metal which could damage your planer and jointer knives (and keep rechecking — cleared everything I could originally detect, but as I milled down a piece I found a deeper embedded piece of cut nail that took a big nick out of my planer knives) So from then on I make repeated passes with the metal detector even as I plane down the wood.
Be judicious with your planing — it would be very easy to just power through all the tool marks and character and lose a lot of the history of the wood
Use traditional joinery and woodworking techniques (I think reclaimed wood looks better with traditional designs)
Old growth detail — some pieces had well over 150 years worth of tight growth rings and many well preserved hand tool marks, nail holes etc
Through mortise and tenon joinery that is draw bored and pinned
The piece had to make it through some very tight places and I built it in such a way that the legs could bolt off to make it through narrow places (See pics for more details of this)
I also concealed leveling feet to make it easier to stabilize on an uneven floor etc
Matching night stand has similar character and design to match the headboard. Still has great old saw marks in it
Finish included stain, dye for tinting, polyurethane and hand rubbed wax finish
This is a project I’ve been wanting for a while now.
It’s an 8′ long steam box for steaming Windsor Chair and Architectural parts. It’s powered by 2 Wagner wallpaper steamers so it should have plenty of steam to get the job done even given it’s large size. Interior opening is 4″ x 6.5″x 8′ so plenty of room for most anything I would want to steam bend.
Highlights of this unit:
Tight fitting steam entry ports which make use of threaded hose fittings
Folding legs so I can take the unit with me when I travel or to save shop space when not in use
Made from a single sheet of CDX Plywood
Some will say it is overbuilt for a Steam Box, but I hope to get a long service life out of it and most of the outside parts (legs etc) can all be remounted on another unit when the time comes to replace the core box.
Below is a slide show of the Steam Box being built along with some tips in the captions.
A Joiner's Guide To Traditional Woodworking and Preservation